Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Maccabees
CATSS LXX Wiki Latin Translation LXX / Vulgata Clementina Westminster Leningrad Codex Wiki Latin Translation HB / Vulgata Clementina 1 2Mc 12:1 1 γενομένων δὲ τῶν συνθηκῶν τούτων ὁ μὲν Λυσίας ἀπῄει πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα οἱ δὲ Ιουδαῖοι περὶ τὴν γεωργίαν ἐγίνοντο 2Mc 12:1
¶So when this agreement had been made, Lysias departed to the king, and the Jews went about their farming.
- - - 2 2Mc 12:2 2 τῶν δὲ κατὰ τόπον στρατηγῶν Τιμόθεος καὶ Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ τοῦ Γενναίου ἔτι δὲ Ἱερώνυμος καὶ Δημοφών πρὸς δὲ τούτοις Νικάνωρ ὁ Κυπριάρχης οὐκ εἴων αὐτοὺς εὐσταθεῖν καὶ τὰ τῆς ἡσυχίας ἄγειν 2Mc 12:2
¶But some of the governors of districts, Timotheus and Apollonius the son of Gennaeus, and also Hieronymus and Demophon, and beside them Nicanor the governor of Cyprus, would not allow them to enjoy tranquillity and live in peace.
- - - 3 2Mc 12:3 3 Ἰοππῖται δὲ τηλικοῦτο συνετέλεσαν τὸ δυσσέβημα παρακαλέσαντες τοὺς σὺν αὐτοῖς οἰκοῦντας Ιουδαίους ἐμβῆναι εἰς τὰ παρακατασταθέντα ὑπ’ αὐτῶν σκάφη σὺν γυναιξὶν καὶ τέκνοις ὡς μηδεμιᾶς ἐνεστώσης πρὸς αὐτοὺς δυσμενείας 2Mc 12:3
Men of Joppa perpetrated this great impiety: they invited the Jews who lived among them to go with their wives and children into the boats which they had provided, as though they had no ill will toward them.
- - - 4 2Mc 12:4 4 κατὰ δὲ τὸ κοινὸν τῆς πόλεως ψήφισμα καὶ τούτων ἐπιδεξαμένων ὡς ἂν εἰρηνεύειν θελόντων καὶ μηδὲν ὕποπτον ἐχόντων ἐπαναχθέντας αὐτοὺς ἐβύθισαν ὄντας οὐκ ἔλαττον τῶν διακοσίων 2Mc 12:4
relying on the public vote of the city, accepted the invitation, as men desiring to live in peace and suspecting nothing, they took them out to sea and drowned not less than two hundred of them.
- - - 5 2Mc 12:5 5 μεταλαβὼν δὲ Ιουδας τὴν γεγονυῖαν εἰς τοὺς ὁμοεθνεῖς ὠμότητα παραγγείλας τοῖς περὶ αὐτὸν ἀνδράσιν 2Mc 12:5
When Judas heard of the cruelty done to his fellow-countrymen, giving command to the men that were with him
- - - 6 2Mc 12:6 6 καὶ ἐπικαλεσάμενος τὸν δίκαιον κριτὴν θεὸν παρεγένετο ἐπὶ τοὺς μιαιφόνους τῶν ἀδελφῶν καὶ τὸν μὲν λιμένα νύκτωρ ἐνέπρησεν καὶ τὰ σκάφη κατέφλεξεν τοὺς δὲ ἐκεῖ συμφυγόντας ἐξεκέντησεν 2Mc 12:6
and calling upon God the righteous Judge, he came against the murderers of his kindred, and set the harbor on fire at night, burned the boats, and put to the sword those who had fled there.
- - - 7 2Mc 12:7 7 τοῦ δὲ χωρίου συγκλεισθέντος ἀνέλυσεν ὡς πάλιν ἥξων καὶ τὸ σύμπαν τῶν Ιοππιτῶν ἐκριζῶσαι πολίτευμα 2Mc 12:7
But when the town gates were closed, he withdrew, intending to come again to root out the whole community of the men of Joppa.
- - - 8 2Mc 12:8 8 μεταλαβὼν δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐν Ιαμνείᾳ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐπιτελεῖν βουλομένους τρόπον τοῖς παροικοῦσιν Ιουδαίοις 2Mc 12:8
But learning that the men of Jamnia intended to do the same thing to the Jews who lived among them,
- - - 9 2Mc 12:9 9 καὶ τοῖς Ιαμνίταις νυκτὸς ἐπιβαλὼν ὑφῆψεν τὸν λιμένα σὺν τῷ στόλῳ ὥστε φαίνεσθαι τὰς αὐγὰς τοῦ φέγγους εἰς τὰ Ιεροσόλυμα σταδίων ὄντων διακοσίων τεσσαράκοντα 2Mc 12:9
he attacked the Jamnites at night, and set fire to the harbor together with the fleet, so that the glare of the light was seen at Jerusalem, two hundred forty furlongs
- - - 10 2Mc 12:10 10 ἐκεῖθεν δὲ ἀποσπάσαντες σταδίους ἐννέα ποιουμένων τὴν πορείαν ἐπὶ τὸν Τιμόθεον προσέβαλον Ἄραβες αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν πεντακισχιλίων ἱππεῖς δὲ πεντακόσιοι 2Mc 12:10
¶Now when they had drawn off nine furlongs
from there, as they marched against Timotheus, an army of Arabians attacked him, no fewer than five thousand infantry and five hundred cavalry.
- - - 11 2Mc 12:11 11 γενομένης δὲ καρτερᾶς μάχης καὶ τῶν περὶ τὸν Ιουδαν διὰ τὴν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ βοήθειαν εὐημερησάντων ἐλαττονωθέντες οἱ νομάδες ἠξίουν δοῦναι τὸν Ιουδαν δεξιὰς αὐτοῖς ὑπισχνούμενοι καὶ βοσκήματα δώσειν καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς ὠφελήσειν αὐτούς 2Mc 12:11
And when a hard battle had been fought, and Judas and his company, by the help of God, had good success, the nomads being overcome implored Judas to grant them friendship, promising to give him livestock, and to help
his people in all other ways.
- - - 12 2Mc 12:12 12 Ιουδας δὲ ὑπολαβὼν ὡς ἀληθῶς ἐν πολλοῖς αὐτοὺς χρησίμους ἐπεχώρησεν εἰρήνην ἄξειν πρὸς αὐτούς καὶ λαβόντες δεξιὰς εἰς τὰς σκηνὰς ἐχωρίσθησαν 2Mc 12:12
So Judas, thinking that they would indeed be profitable in many things, agreed to live in peace with them; and receiving pledges of friendship they departed to their tents.
- - - 13 2Mc 12:13 13 ἐπέβαλεν δὲ καὶ ἐπί τινα πόλιν γεφύραις ὀχυρὰν καὶ τείχεσιν περιπεφραγμένην καὶ παμμειγέσιν ἔθνεσιν κατοικουμένην ὄνομα δὲ Κασπιν 2Mc 12:13
¶He also attacked a certain city, strong and fenced with earthworks and walls, and inhabited by a mixed multitude of various nations. It was named Caspin.
- - - 14 2Mc 12:14 14 οἱ δὲ ἔνδον πεποιθότες τῇ τῶν τειχέων ἐρυμνότητι τῇ τε τῶν βρωμάτων παραθέσει ἀναγωγότερον ἐχρῶντο τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ιουδαν λοιδοροῦντες καὶ προσέτι βλασφημοῦντες καὶ λαλοῦντες ἃ μὴ θέμις 2Mc 12:14
Those who were within, trusting in the strength of the walls and their store of provisions, behaved themselves rudely toward Judas and those who were with him, railing, and furthermore blaspheming and speaking impious words.
- - - 15 2Mc 12:15 15 οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ιουδαν ἐπικαλεσάμενοι τὸν μέγαν τοῦ κόσμου δυνάστην τὸν ἄτερ κριῶν καὶ μηχανῶν ὀργανικῶν κατακρημνίσαντα τὴν Ιεριχω κατὰ τοὺς Ἰησοῦ χρόνους ἐνέσεισαν θηριωδῶς τῷ τείχει 2Mc 12:15
But Judas and his company, calling upon the great Sovereign of the world, who without rams and cunning engines of war hurled down Jericho in the times of Joshua, rushed wildly against the wall.
- - - 16 2Mc 12:16 16 καταλαβόμενοί τε τὴν πόλιν τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ θελήσει ἀμυθήτους ἐποιήσαντο σφαγὰς ὥστε τὴν παρακειμένην λίμνην τὸ πλάτος ἔχουσαν σταδίους δύο κατάρρυτον αἵματι πεπληρωμένην φαίνεσθαι 2Mc 12:16
Having taken the city by the will of God, they made unspeakable slaughter, so much that the adjoining lake, which was two furlongs
broad, appeared to be filled with the deluge of blood.
- - - 17 2Mc 12:17 17 ἐκεῖθεν δὲ ἀποσπάσαντες σταδίους ἑπτακοσίους πεντήκοντα διήνυσαν εἰς τὸν Χάρακα πρὸς τοὺς λεγομένους Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους 2Mc 12:17
¶When they had gone seven hundred fifty furlongs
from there, they made their way to Charax, to the Jews that are called
- - - 18 2Mc 12:18 18 καὶ Τιμόθεον μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν τόπων οὐ κατέλαβον ἄπρακτον τότε ἀπὸ τῶν τόπων ἐκλελυκότα καταλελοιπότα δὲ φρουρὰν ἔν τινι τόπῳ καὶ μάλα ὀχυράν 2Mc 12:18
They didn’t find Timotheus in that district, for he had by then departed from the district without accomplishing anything, but had left behind a very strong garrison in one place.
- - - 19 2Mc 12:19 19 Δοσίθεος δὲ καὶ Σωσίπατρος τῶν περὶ τὸν Μακκαβαῖον ἡγεμόνων ἐξοδεύσαντες ἀπώλεσαν τοὺς ὑπὸ Τιμοθέου καταλειφθέντας ἐν τῷ ὀχυρώματι πλείους τῶν μυρίων ἀνδρῶν 2Mc 12:19
But Dositheus and Sosipater, who were captains under Maccabaeus, went out and destroyed those who had been left by Timotheus in the stronghold, more than ten thousand men.
- - - 20 2Mc 12:20 20 ὁ δὲ Μακκαβαῖος διατάξας τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν στρατιὰν σπειρηδὸν κατέστησεν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τῶν σπειρῶν καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Τιμόθεον ὥρμησεν ἔχοντα περὶ αὐτὸν μυριάδας δώδεκα πεζῶν ἱππεῖς δὲ δισχιλίους πρὸς τοῖς πεντακοσίοις 2Mc 12:20
Maccabaeus, arranging his own army in divisions, set
these two over the bands, and marched in haste against Timotheus, who had with him one hundred twenty thousand infantry and two thousand five hundred cavalry.
- - - 21 2Mc 12:21 21 τὴν δὲ ἔφοδον μεταλαβὼν Ιουδου προεξαπέστειλεν ὁ Τιμόθεος τὰς γυναῖκας καὶ τὰ τέκνα καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ἀποσκευὴν εἰς τὸ λεγόμενον Καρνιον ἦν γὰρ δυσπολιόρκητον καὶ δυσπρόσιτον τὸ χωρίον διὰ τὴν πάντων τῶν τόπων στενότητα 2Mc 12:21
When Timotheus heard of the approach of Judas, he at once sent away the women and the children with the baggage into the fortress called
Carnion; for the place was hard to besiege and difficult of access by reason of the narrowness of the approaches on all sides.
- - - 22 2Mc 12:22 22 ἐπιφανείσης δὲ τῆς Ιουδου σπείρας πρώτης καὶ γενομένου δέους ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους φόβου τε ἐκ τῆς τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐφορῶντος ἐπιφανείας γενομένης ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς εἰς φυγὴν ὥρμησαν ἄλλος ἀλλαχῇ φερόμενος ὥστε πολλάκις ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων βλάπτεσθαι καὶ ταῖς τῶν ξιφῶν ἀκμαῖς ἀναπείρεσθαι 2Mc 12:22
When the band of Judas, who led the first division, appeared in sight, and when terror and fear came upon the enemy, because the manifestation of him who sees all things came upon them, they fled in every direction, carried this way and that, so that they were often injured by their own men, and pierced with the points of their own swords.
- - - 23 2Mc 12:23 23 ἐποιεῖτο δὲ τὸν διωγμὸν εὐτονώτερον ὁ Ιουδας συγκεντῶν τοὺς ἀλιτηρίους διέφθειρέν τε εἰς μυριάδας τρεῖς ἀνδρῶν 2Mc 12:23
Judas continued the pursuit more vigorously, putting the wicked wretches to the sword, and he destroyed as many as thirty thousand men.
- - - 24 2Mc 12:24 24 αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Τιμόθεος ἐμπεσὼν τοῖς περὶ τὸν Δοσίθεον καὶ Σωσίπατρον ἠξίου μετὰ πολλῆς γοητείας ἐξαφεῖναι σῶον αὐτὸν διὰ τὸ πλειόνων μὲν γονεῖς ὧν δὲ ἀδελφοὺς ἔχειν καὶ τούτους ἀλογηθῆναι συμβήσεται 2Mc 12:24
¶Timotheus himself, falling in with the company of Dositheus and Sosipater, implored them with much crafty guile to let him go with his life, because he had in his power the parents of many of them and the kindred of some.
“Otherwise, he said, little regard will
be shown to these.”
- - - 25 2Mc 12:25 25 πιστώσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ διὰ πλειόνων τὸν ὁρισμὸν ἀποκαταστῆσαι τούτους ἀπημάντους ἀπέλυσαν αὐτὸν ἕνεκα τῆς τῶν ἀδελφῶν σωτηρίας 2Mc 12:25
So when he had with many words confirmed the agreement to restore them without harm, they let him go that they might save their kindred.
- - - 26 2Mc 12:26 26 ἐξελθὼν δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ Καρνιον καὶ τὸ Ατεργατειον κατέσφαξεν μυριάδας σωμάτων δύο καὶ πεντακισχιλίους 2Mc 12:26
¶Then Judas, marching against
Carnion and the temple of Atergatis, killed twenty-five thousand people.
- - - 27 2Mc 12:27 27 μετὰ δὲ τὴν τούτων τροπὴν καὶ ἀπώλειαν ἐπεστράτευσεν καὶ ἐπὶ Εφρων πόλιν ὀχυράν ἐν ᾗ κατῴκει Λυσίας καὶ πάμφυλα πλήθη νεανίαι δὲ ῥωμαλέοι πρὸ τῶν τειχέων καθεστῶτες εὐρώστως ἀπεμάχοντο ἔνθα δὲ ὀργάνων καὶ βελῶν πολλαὶ παραθέσεις ὑπῆρχον 2Mc 12:27
After he had put these to flight and destroyed them, he marched against Ephron also, a strong city,
wherein were multitudes of people of all nations. Stalwart young men placed
on the walls made a vigorous defense. There were great stores of war engines and darts there.
- - - 28 2Mc 12:28 28 ἐπικαλεσάμενοι δὲ τὸν δυνάστην τὸν μετὰ κράτους συντρίβοντα τὰς τῶν πολεμίων ἀλκὰς ἔλαβον τὴν πόλιν ὑποχείριον κατέστρωσαν δὲ τῶν ἔνδον εἰς μυριάδας δύο πεντακισχιλίους 2Mc 12:28
But calling upon the Sovereign who with might shatters the
the enemy, they took the city into their hands, and killed as many as twenty-five thousand of those who were in it.
- - - 29 2Mc 12:29 29 ἀναζεύξαντες δὲ ἐκεῖθεν ὥρμησαν ἐπὶ Σκυθῶν πόλιν ἀπέχουσαν ἀπὸ Ιεροσολύμων σταδίους ἑξακοσίους 2Mc 12:29
¶Setting out from there, they marched in haste against Scythopolis, which is six hundred furlongs
away from Jerusalem.
- - - 30 2Mc 12:30 30 ἀπομαρτυρησάντων δὲ τῶν ἐκεῖ καθεστώτων Ιουδαίων ἣν οἱ Σκυθοπολῖται ἔσχον πρὸς αὐτοὺς εὔνοιαν καὶ ἐν τοῖς τῆς ἀτυχίας καιροῖς ἥμερον ἀπάντησιν 2Mc 12:30
But when the Jews who were settled there testified of the good will that the Scythopolitans had shown toward them, and of their kind treatment of them in the times of their misfortune,
- - - 31 2Mc 12:31 31 εὐχαριστήσαντες καὶ προσπαρακαλέσαντες καὶ εἰς τὰ λοιπὰ πρὸς τὸ γένος εὐμενεῖς εἶναι παρεγενήθησαν εἰς Ιεροσόλυμα τῆς τῶν ἑβδομάδων ἑορτῆς οὔσης ὑπογύου 2Mc 12:31
they gave thanks, and further exhorted them to remain well disposed toward the race for the future. Then they went up to Jerusalem, the feast of weeks being close at hand.
- - - 32 2Mc 12:32 32 μετὰ δὲ τὴν λεγομένην πεντηκοστὴν ὥρμησαν ἐπὶ Γοργίαν τὸν τῆς Ιδουμαίας στρατηγόν 2Mc 12:32
¶But after the feast called Pentecost, they marched in haste against Gorgias the governor of Idumaea.
- - - 33 2Mc 12:33 33 ἐξῆλθεν δὲ μετὰ πεζῶν τρισχιλίων ἱππέων δὲ τετρακοσίων 2Mc 12:33
He came out with three thousand infantry and four hundred cavalry.
- - - 34 2Mc 12:34 34 παραταξαμένους δὲ συνέβη πεσεῖν ὀλίγους τῶν Ιουδαίων 2Mc 12:34
When they had set themselves in array, it came to pass that a few of the Jews fell.
- - - 35 2Mc 12:35 35 Δοσίθεος δέ τις τῶν τοῦ Βακήνορος ἔφιππος ἀνὴρ καὶ καρτερός εἴχετο τοῦ Γοργίου καὶ λαβόμενος τῆς χλαμύδος ἦγεν αὐτὸν εὐρώστως καὶ βουλόμενος τὸν κατάρατον λαβεῖν ζωγρίαν τῶν ἱππέων τινὸς Θρᾳκῶν ἐπενεχθέντος αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν ὦμον καθελόντος διέφυγεν ὁ Γοργίας εἰς Μαρισα 2Mc 12:35
A certain Dositheus, one
of Bacenor’s company, who was on horseback and was a strong man, pressed hard on Gorgias, and taking hold of his cloke dragged him along by main force. While he planned to take the accursed man alive, one of the Thracian cavalry bore down on him and disabled his shoulder, and so Gorgias escaped to
- - - 36 2Mc 12:36 36 τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν Εσδριν ἐπὶ πλεῖον μαχομένων καὶ κατακόπων ὄντων ἐπικαλεσάμενος Ιουδας τὸν κύριον σύμμαχον φανῆναι καὶ προοδηγὸν τοῦ πολέμου 2Mc 12:36
¶When those who were with Esdris had been fighting long and were weary, Judas called upon the Lord to show himself, fighting on their side and leading in the battle.
- - - 37 2Mc 12:37 37 καταρξάμενος τῇ πατρίῳ φωνῇ τὴν μεθ’ ὕμνων κραυγὴν ἐνσείσας ἀπροσδοκήτως τοῖς περὶ τὸν Γοργίαν τροπὴν αὐτῶν ἐποιήσατο 2Mc 12:37
Then in the language of his ancestors he raised the battle cry joined with hymns. Then he rushed against Gorgias’ troops when they were not expecting it, and put them to flight.
- - - 38 2Mc 12:38 38 Ιουδας δὲ ἀναλαβὼν τὸ στράτευμα ἧκεν εἰς Οδολλαμ πόλιν τῆς δὲ ἑβδομάδος ἐπιβαλλούσης κατὰ τὸν ἐθισμὸν ἁγνισθέντες αὐτόθι τὸ σάββατον διήγαγον 2Mc 12:38
¶Judas gathered his army and came to the city of
Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and kept the Sabbath there.
- - - 39 2Mc 12:39 39 τῇ δὲ ἐχομένῃ ἦλθον οἱ περὶ τὸν Ιουδαν καθ’ ὃν χρόνον τὸ τῆς χρείας ἐγεγόνει τὰ σώματα τῶν προπεπτωκότων ἀνακομίσασθαι καὶ μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν ἀποκαταστῆσαι εἰς τοὺς πατρῴους τάφους 2Mc 12:39
¶On the following day,
when it had become necessary, Judas and his company came to take up the bodies of those who had fallen,
and in company with their kinsmen to bring them back to the sepulchres of their ancestors.
- - - 40 2Mc 12:40 40 εὗρον δὲ ἑκάστου τῶν τεθνηκότων ὑπὸ τοὺς χιτῶνας ἱερώματα τῶν ἀπὸ Ιαμνείας εἰδώλων ἀφ’ ὧν ὁ νόμος ἀπείργει τοὺς Ιουδαίους τοῖς δὲ πᾶσι σαφὲς ἐγένετο διὰ τήνδε τὴν αἰτίαν τούσδε πεπτωκέναι 2Mc 12:40
But under the garments of each one of the dead they found
consecrated tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to have anything to do with. It became clear to all that it was for this cause that they had fallen.
- - - 41 2Mc 12:41 41 πάντες οὖν εὐλογήσαντες τὰ τοῦ δικαιοκρίτου κυρίου τὰ κεκρυμμένα φανερὰ ποιοῦντος 2Mc 12:41
All therefore, blessing the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who makes manifest the things that are hidden,
- - - 42 2Mc 12:42 42 εἰς ἱκετείαν ἐτράπησαν ἀξιώσαντες τὸ γεγονὸς ἁμάρτημα τελείως ἐξαλειφθῆναι ὁ δὲ γενναῖος Ιουδας παρεκάλεσε τὸ πλῆθος συντηρεῖν αὑτοὺς ἀναμαρτήτους εἶναι ὑπ’ ὄψιν ἑωρακότας τὰ γεγονότα διὰ τὴν τῶν προπεπτωκότων ἁμαρτίαν 2Mc 12:42
turned themselves to supplication, praying that the sin committed might be wholly blotted out. The noble Judas exhorted the multitude to keep themselves from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.
- - - 43 2Mc 12:43 43 ποιησάμενός τε κατ’ ἀνδρολογίαν εἰς ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς δισχιλίας ἀπέστειλεν εἰς Ιεροσόλυμα προσαγαγεῖν περὶ ἁμαρτίας θυσίαν πάνυ καλῶς καὶ ἀστείως πράττων ὑπὲρ ἀναστάσεως διαλογιζόμενος 2Mc 12:43
When he had made a collection man by man to the sum of two thousand drachmas of silver, he sent to Jerusalem to offer a sacrifice for sin, doing very well and honorably in this, in that he took thought for the resurrection.
- - - 44 2Mc 12:44 44 εἰ μὴ γὰρ τοὺς προπεπτωκότας ἀναστῆναι προσεδόκα περισσὸν καὶ ληρῶδες ὑπὲρ νεκρῶν εὔχεσθαι 2Mc 12:44
For if he wasn’t expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would be superfluous and idle to pray for the dead.
- - - 45 2Mc 12:45 45 εἶτε’ ἐμβλέπων τοῖς μετ’ εὐσεβείας κοιμωμένοις κάλλιστον ἀποκείμενον χαριστήριον ὁσία καὶ εὐσεβὴς ἡ ἐπίνοια ὅθεν περὶ τῶν τεθνηκότων τὸν ἐξιλασμὸν ἐποιήσατο τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀπολυθῆναι 2Mc 12:45
But if he was looking forward to an honorable memorial of gratitude laid up for those who
in godliness, then the thought was holy and godly. Therefore he made the atoning sacrifice for those who had died, that they might be released from their sin.
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