Μακκαβαίων Δʹ 4 Maccabees
CATSS LXX Wiki Latin Translation LXX / Vulgata Clementina Westminster Leningrad Codex Wiki Latin Translation HB / Vulgata Clementina 1 4Mc 1:1 1 φιλοσοφώτατον λόγον ἐπιδείκνυσθαι μέλλων εἰ αὐτοδέσποτός ἐστιν τῶν παθῶν ὁ εὐσεβὴς λογισμός συμβουλεύσαιμ’ ἂν ὑμῖν ὀρθῶς ὅπως προσέχητε προθύμως τῇ φιλοσοφίᾳ 4Mc 1:1
¶As I am going to demonstrate a most philosophical proposition, namely, that religious reasoning is absolute master of the emotions. I would willingly advise you to give the utmost heed to philosophy.
- - - 2 4Mc 1:2 2 καὶ γὰρ ἀναγκαῖος εἰς ἐπιστήμην παντὶ ὁ λόγος καὶ ἄλλως τῆς μεγίστης ἀρετῆς λέγω δὴ φρονήσεως περιέχει ἔπαινον 4Mc 1:2
For reason is necessary to everyone as a step to science. In addition, it embraces the praise of self-control, the highest virtue.
- - - 3 4Mc 1:3 3 εἰ ἄρα τῶν σωφροσύνης κωλυτικῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς φαίνεται ἐπικρατεῖν γαστριμαργίας τε καὶ ἐπιθυμίας 4Mc 1:3
If, then, reasoning appears to hold the mastery over the emotions which stand in the way of temperance, such as gluttony and lust,
- - - 4 4Mc 1:4 4 ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἐμποδιστικῶν παθῶν κυριεύειν ἀναφαίνεται οἷον κακοηθείας καὶ τῶν τῆς ἀνδρείας ἐμποδιστικῶν παθῶν θυμοῦ τε καὶ φόβου καὶ πόνου 4Mc 1:4
it surely also and manifestly rules over the affections which are contrary to justice, such as malice, and of those which are hindrances to courage, such as wrath, pain, and fear.
- - - 5 4Mc 1:5 5 πῶς οὖν ἴσως εἴποιεν ἄν τινες εἰ τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς κρατεῖ λήθης καὶ ἀγνοίας οὐ δεσπόζει γελοῖον ἐπιχειροῦντες λέγειν 4Mc 1:5
Perhaps some may ask, “How is it, then, that reasoning, if it rules the emotions, isn’t also master of forgetfulness and ignorance?” They attempt a ridiculous argument.
- - - 6 4Mc 1:6 6 οὐ γὰρ τῶν αὑτοῦ παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς κρατεῖ ἀλλὰ τῶν τῆς δικαιοσύνης καὶ ἀνδρείας καὶ σωφροσύνης ἐναντίων καὶ τούτων οὐχ ὥστε αὐτὰ καταλῦσαι ἀλλ’ ὥστε αὐτοῖς μὴ εἶξαι 4Mc 1:6
For reasoning does not rule over its own emotions, but over those that are contrary to justice, courage, temperance, and self-control; and yet over these, so as to withstand, without destroying them.
- - - 7 4Mc 1:7 7 πολλαχόθεν μὲν οὖν καὶ ἀλλαχόθεν ἔχοιμ’ ἂν ὑμῖν ἐπιδεῖξαι ὅτι αὐτοκράτωρ ἐστὶν τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμός 4Mc 1:7
¶I might prove to you from many other considerations, that religious reasoning is sole master of the emotions;
- - - 8 4Mc 1:8 8 πολὺ δὲ πλέον τοῦτο ἀποδείξαιμι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνδραγαθίας τῶν ὑπὲρ ἀρετῆς ἀποθανόντων Ελεαζαρου τε καὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀδελφῶν καὶ τῆς τούτων μητρός 4Mc 1:8
but I will prove it with the greatest force from the fortitude of Eleazar, and seven kindred, and their mother, who suffered death in defense of virtue.
- - - 9 4Mc 1:9 9 ἅπαντες γὰρ οὗτοι τοὺς ἕως θανάτου πόνους ὑπεριδόντες ἐπεδείξαντο ὅτι περικρατεῖ τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμός 4Mc 1:9
For all these, treating pains with contempt even to death, by this contempt, demonstrated that reasoning has command over the emotions.
- - - 10 4Mc 1:10 10 τῶν μὲν οὖν ἀρετῶν ἔπεστί μοι ἐπαινεῖν τοὺς κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς καλοκἀγαθίας ἀποθανόντας μετὰ τῆς μητρὸς ἄνδρας τῶν δὲ τιμῶν μακαρίσαιμ’ ἄν 4Mc 1:10
For their virtues, then, it is right that I should commend those men who died with their mother at this time on behalf of nobility and goodness; and for their honors, I may count them blessed.
- - - 11 4Mc 1:11 11 θαυμασθέντες γὰρ οὐ μόνον ὑπὸ πάντων ἀνθρώπων ἐπὶ τῇ ἀνδρείᾳ καὶ ὑπομονῇ ἀλλὰ καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν αἰκισαμένων αἴτιοι κατέστησαν τοῦ καταλυθῆναι τὴν κατὰ τοῦ ἔθνους τυραννίδα νικήσαντες τὸν τύραννον τῇ ὑπομονῇ ὥστε καθαρισθῆναι δι’ αὐτῶν τὴν πατρίδα 4Mc 1:11
For they, winning admiration not only from men in general, but even from the persecutors, for their courage and endurance, became the means of the destruction of the tyranny against their nation, having conquered the tyrant by their endurance, so that by them their country was purified.
- - - 12 4Mc 1:12 12 ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τούτου νῦν αὐτίκα δὴ λέγειν ἐξέσται ἀρξαμένῳ τῆς ὑποθέσεως ὅπερ εἴωθα ποιεῖν καὶ οὕτως εἰς τὸν περὶ αὐτῶν τρέψομαι λόγον δόξαν διδοὺς τῷ πανσόφῳ θεῷ 4Mc 1:12
But we may now at once enter upon the question, having commenced, as is our custom, with laying down the doctrine, and so proceed to the account of these people, giving glory to the all-wise God.
- - - 13 4Mc 1:13 13 ζητοῦμεν δὴ τοίνυν εἰ αὐτοκράτωρ ἐστὶν τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμός 4Mc 1:13
¶Therefore the question whether reasoning is absolute master of the emotions.
- - - 14 4Mc 1:14 14 διακρίνομεν τί ποτέ ἐστιν λογισμὸς καὶ τί πάθος καὶ πόσαι παθῶν ἰδέαι καὶ εἰ πάντων ἐπικρατεῖ τούτων ὁ λογισμός 4Mc 1:14
Let’s determine, then, what reasoning is and what emotion is, and how many forms of emotion there are, and whether reasoning rules over all of these.
- - - 15 4Mc 1:15 15 λογισμὸς μὲν δὴ τοίνυν ἐστὶν νοῦς μετὰ ὀρθοῦ λόγου προτιμῶν τὸν σοφίας βίον 4Mc 1:15
Reasoning is intellect accompanied by a life of righteousness, putting foremost the consideration of wisdom.
- - - 16 4Mc 1:16 16 σοφία δὴ τοίνυν ἐστὶν γνῶσις θείων καὶ ἀνθρωπίνων πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν τούτων αἰτιῶν 4Mc 1:16
Wisdom is a knowledge of divine and human things, and of their causes.
- - - 17 4Mc 1:17 17 αὕτη δὴ τοίνυν ἐστὶν ἡ τοῦ νόμου παιδεία δι’ ἧς τὰ θεῖα σεμνῶς καὶ τὰ ἀνθρώπινα συμφερόντως μανθάνομεν 4Mc 1:17
This is contained in the education of the law, by means of which we learn divine things reverently and human things profitably.
- - - 18 4Mc 1:18 18 τῆς δὲ σοφίας ἰδέαι καθεστήκασιν φρόνησις καὶ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία καὶ σωφροσύνη 4Mc 1:18
The forms of wisdom are self-control, justice, courage, and temperance.
- - - 19 4Mc 1:19 19 κυριωτάτη δὲ πάντων ἡ φρόνησις ἐξ ἧς δὴ τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς ἐπικρατεῖ 4Mc 1:19
The leading one of these is self-control, by whose means, indeed, it is that reasoning rules over the emotions.
- - - 20 4Mc 1:20 20 παθῶν δὲ φύσεις εἰσὶν αἱ περιεκτικώταται δύο ἡδονή τε καὶ πόνος τούτων δὲ ἑκάτερον καὶ περὶ τὸ σῶμα καὶ περὶ τὴν ψυχὴν πέφυκεν 4Mc 1:20
Of the emotions, pleasure and pain are the two most comprehensive; and they also by nature refer to the soul.
- - - 21 4Mc 1:21 21 πολλαὶ δὲ καὶ περὶ τὴν ἡδονὴν καὶ τὸν πόνον παθῶν εἰσιν ἀκολουθίαι 4Mc 1:21
There are many attendant affections surrounding pleasure and pain.
- - - 22 4Mc 1:22 22 πρὸ μὲν οὖν τῆς ἡδονῆς ἐστιν ἐπιθυμία μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἡδονὴν χαρά 4Mc 1:22
Before pleasure is lust; and after pleasure, joy.
- - - 23 4Mc 1:23 23 πρὸ δὲ τοῦ πόνου ἐστὶν φόβος μετὰ δὲ τὸν πόνον λύπη 4Mc 1:23
Before pain is fear; and after pain is sorrow.
- - - 24 4Mc 1:24 24 θυμὸς δὲ κοινὸν πάθος ἐστὶν ἡδονῆς καὶ πόνου ἐὰν ἐννοηθῇ τις ὅτι αὐτῷ περιέπεσεν 4Mc 1:24
Wrath is an affection, common to pleasure and to pain, if any one will pay attention when it comes upon him.
- - - 25 4Mc 1:25 25 ἐν τῇ ἡδονῇ δὲ ἔνεστιν καὶ ἡ κακοήθης διάθεσις πολυτροπωτάτη πάντων οὖσα τῶν παθῶν 4Mc 1:25
There exists in pleasure a malicious disposition, which is the most complex of all the affections.
- - - 26 4Mc 1:26 26 καὶ τὰ μὲν ψυχῆς ἀλαζονεία καὶ φιλαργυρία καὶ φιλοδοξία καὶ φιλονεικία καὶ βασκανία 4Mc 1:26
In the soul, it is arrogance, love of money, thirst for honor, contention, faithlessness, and the evil eye.
- - - 27 4Mc 1:27 27 κατὰ δὲ τὸ σῶμα παντοφαγία καὶ λαιμαργία καὶ μονοφαγία 4Mc 1:27
In the body, it is greediness, indiscriminate eating, and solitary gluttony.
- - - 28 4Mc 1:28 28 καθάπερ οὖν δυεῖν τοῦ σώματος καὶ τῆς ψυχῆς φυτῶν ὄντων ἡδονῆς τε καὶ πόνου πολλαὶ τούτων τῶν φυτῶν εἰσιν παραφυάδες 4Mc 1:28
¶As pleasure and pain are, therefore, two growths out of the body and the soul, so there are many offshoots of these emotions.
- - - 29 4Mc 1:29 29 ὧν ἑκάστην ὁ παγγέωργος λογισμὸς περικαθαίρων καὶ ἀποκνίζων καὶ περιπλέκων καὶ ἐπάρδων καὶ πάντα τρόπον μεταχέων ἐξημεροῖ τὰς τῶν ἠθῶν καὶ παθῶν ὕλας 4Mc 1:29
Reasoning, the universal farmer, purging and pruning each of these, tying up, watering, and transplanting, in every way improves the materials of the morals and affections.
- - - 30 4Mc 1:30 30 ὁ γὰρ λογισμὸς τῶν μὲν ἀρετῶν ἐστιν ἡγεμών τῶν δὲ παθῶν αὐτοκράτωρ ἐπιθεωρεῖτε τοίνυν πρῶτον διὰ τῶν κωλυτικῶν τῆς σωφροσύνης ἔργων ὅτι αὐτοδέσποτός ἐστιν τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμός 4Mc 1:30
For reasoning is the leader of the virtues, but it is the sole ruler of the emotions. ¶Observe then first, through the very things which stand in the way of temperance, that reasoning is absolute ruler of the emotions.
- - - 31 4Mc 1:31 31 σωφροσύνη δὴ τοίνυν ἐστὶν ἐπικράτεια τῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν 4Mc 1:31
Now temperance consists of a command over the lusts.
- - - 32 4Mc 1:32 32 τῶν δὲ ἐπιθυμιῶν αἱ μέν εἰσιν ψυχικαί αἱ δὲ σωματικαί καὶ τούτων ἀμφοτέρων ἐπικρατεῖν ὁ λογισμὸς φαίνεται 4Mc 1:32
But of the lusts, some belong to the soul and others to the body. Reasoning appears to rule over both.
- - - 33 4Mc 1:33 33 ἐπεὶ πόθεν κινούμενοι πρὸς τὰς ἀπειρημένας τροφὰς ἀποστρεφόμεθα τὰς ἐξ αὐτῶν ἡδονάς οὐχ ὅτι δύναται τῶν ὀρέξεων ἐπικρατεῖν ὁ λογισμός ἐγὼ μὲν οἶμαι 4Mc 1:33
Otherwise, how is it that when urged on to forbidden meats, we reject the gratification which would come from them? Isn’t it because reasoning is able to command the appetites? I believe so.
- - - 34 4Mc 1:34 34 τοιγαροῦν ἐνύδρων ἐπιθυμοῦντες καὶ ὀρνέων καὶ τετραπόδων καὶ παντοίων βρωμάτων τῶν ἀπηγορευμένων ἡμῖν κατὰ τὸν νόμον ἀπεχόμεθα διὰ τὴν τοῦ λογισμοῦ ἐπικράτειαν 4Mc 1:34
Hence it is, then, that when craving seafood, birds, four-footed animals, and all kinds of food which are forbidden to us by the law, we withhold ourselves through the mastery of reasoning.
- - - 35 4Mc 1:35 35 ἀνέχεται γὰρ τὰ τῶν ὀρέξεων πάθη ὑπὸ τοῦ σώφρονος νοὸς ἀνακοπτόμενα καὶ φιμοῦται πάντα τὰ τοῦ σώματος κινήματα ὑπὸ τοῦ λογισμοῦ 4Mc 1:35
For the affections of our appetites are resisted by the temperate understanding, and bent back again, and all the impulses of the body are reined in by reasoning.
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